Renewable energies
Title page of the handouts of my lecture

Since 1979, I present to the students the lecture "Utilization of renewable energies", for free to choose, during the 7th semester, within the plan of study.
Attending the lecture there exists a 110-page script.
Exam is an one hour written examination paper.


Energy units and conversion factors
World population and energy demands
Density of population and energy carrier distribution
Quantities of energy resources
Energy dependencies of different countries

in relation to energy questions: nuclear energy, acid rain, CO2 problem, ozone gap, covering with buildings, insulation against loss of heat

energy balance
of Germany, primary energy balance, energy conversion balance, final energy consuption, energy flow chart

Energy saving
Automobiles, house heating, lighting, electric household appliances

freezing mixture, gas/oil heatpump, ground/underground water/atmosphere

Synopsis on renewable energy sources

Geothermal energy
Globe shell structure, anomalies, geothermal echelonment in depth, survey wordwide of promising sites, special sites (Hungary, Italy, India, Japan, USA, Island), isothermal lines in Germany (communities Landau, Urach, Bühl), project deep borehole Windischeschenbach, dry-hot-rock-technique, geothermal energy potential worldwide and in Germany

Solar energy
Potential theoretical, spectrum analysis, solar insolation angle,
time behavior of solar radiation (diurnal variation, annual progress),
global radiation,
attenuation mechanism of direct solar radiation (absorption, Rayleigh-scattering, aerosol, factors of turbidity),
diffuse sky-radiation
duration of sunshine in Germany,
low temperature collector (types of construction, efficiency)
concentrating collectors (types of construction, concentration ratio, solar-chutes and solar-tower-plants (Almeria),
photovoltaic, solarcells (materials, types of construction, efficiencies, examples of recent build solarfarms),

Potential theoretical, windspeed distribution (isovent lines world, europe, Germany, state of Baden-Württemberg),
windspeed measurement, windspeed above ground,
questions to site selection (obstacles)
windenergy-converter-typology (position of axis, tip speed ratio, lift/drag forces as reaction force), special systems, historical systems,
theory of wind utilization, diagram powercoefficient versus tip speed ratio,
working range of windenergy converters,
types of construction of rotorblades for amateurs, industrial types of construction
history of GROWIAN,
windparks and windfarms, yield results in kWh.
Ocean energy
Tidal energy:
Formation of tides, areas with sufficient tidal range worldwide, potential worldwide, scheme of a tidal power plant (example Rance-mouth France (St. Malo/Dinard)),
possibilities of harmonization of energy output.
Heat transfer energy:
Areas with large differences in temperature (deep water/surface water), open and closed process systems, sweet water production, presentation of projects.
Wave energy:
Wave energy utilization in general, evaluation of the energy content of waves, distribution of height of waves worldwide,
proposed projects and erected projects,
(buoy systems, plate-systems, chamber-types, nodding duck)
Marine Current:
Golfstream, strait of Gibraltar.
Glacial energy:
worlds glaciers, greenland, antarctic, potential theoretical of utilizing melted snow and ice.

Biomass ,
Produktivity and powerdensity of the vegetation period,
agricultural areas in Germany,
transformation processes (combustion, pyrolysis, fermentation, grinding and refining), energy of sugar-cane (alcohol), energy of sugar-beet, biogas of liquid manure, energy of wastes and garbage. Since 24th mars 1997